sudoRole. Instead of defining a Cmnd_Alias that is referenced by multiple users, one can create a
sudoRolethat contains the commands and assign multiple users to it.
ou=SUDOersLDAP container. Sudo first looks for the
cn=defaultsentry in the SUDOers container. If found, the multi-valued
sudoOptionattribute is parsed in the same manner as a global
Defaultsline in /etc/sudoers. In the following example, the
SSH_AUTH_SOCKvariable will be preserved in the environment for all users.
dn: cn=defaults,ou=SUDOers,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: top objectClass: sudoRole cn: defaults description: Default sudoOption's go here sudoOption: env_keep+=SSH_AUTH_SOCK
sudoRole. It consists of the following attributes:
#’), Unix group name or ID (prefixed with ‘
%’ or ‘
%#’ respectively), user netgroup (prefixed with ‘
+’), or non-Unix group name or ID (prefixed with ‘
%:’ or ‘
%:#’ respectively). User netgroups are matched using the user and domain members only; the host member is not used when matching. Non-Unix group support is only available when an appropriate group_plugin is defined in the global defaults
+’). The special value
ALLwill match any host. Host netgroups are matched using the host (both qualified and unqualified) and domain members only; the user member is not used when matching. If a
sudoHostentry is preceded by an exclamation point, ‘
!’, and the entry matches, the
sudoRolein which it resides will be ignored. Negated
sudoHostentries are only supported by version 1.8.18 or higher.
!’, the user will be prohibited from running that command. The built-in command “
sudoedit” is used to permit a user to run sudo with the -e option (or as sudoedit). It may take command line arguments just as a normal command does. Note that “
sudoedit” is a command built into sudo itself and must be specified in without a leading path. The special value
ALLwill match any command. If a command name is prefixed with a SHA-2 digest, it will only be allowed if the digest matches. This may be useful in situations where the user invoking sudo has write access to the command or its parent directory. The following digest formats are supported: sha224, sha256, sha384 and sha512. The digest name must be followed by a colon (‘
:’) and then the actual digest, in either hex or base64 format. For example, given the following value for sudoCommand:
sudoRolein which it resides.
#’) that commands may be run as or a Unix group (prefixed with a ‘
%’) or user netgroup (prefixed with a ‘
+’) that contains a list of users that commands may be run as. The special value
ALLwill match any user. If
sudoRunAsUseris specified but empty, it will match the invoking user. If neither
sudoRunAsGroupare present, the value of the runas_default
sudoOptionis used (defaults to
sudoRunAsUserattribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.0 and higher. Older versions of sudo use the
#’) that commands may be run as. The special value
ALLwill match any group. The
sudoRunAsGroupattribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.0 and higher.
yyyymmddHHMMSSZthat can be used to provide a start date/time for when the
sudoRolewill be valid. If multiple
sudoNotBeforeentries are present, the earliest is used. Note that timestamps must be in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), not the local timezone. The minute and seconds portions are optional, but some LDAP servers require that they be present (contrary to the RFC). The
sudoNotBeforeattribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.5 and higher and must be explicitly enabled via the SUDOERS_TIMED option in /etc/ldap.conf.
yyyymmddHHMMSSZthat indicates an expiration date/time, after which the
sudoRolewill no longer be valid. If multiple
sudoNotAfterentries are present, the last one is used. Note that timestamps must be in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), not the local timezone. The minute and seconds portions are optional, but some LDAP servers require that they be present (contrary to the RFC). The
sudoNotAfterattribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.5 and higher and must be explicitly enabled via the SUDOERS_TIMED option in /etc/ldap.conf.
sudoRoleentries retrieved from the LDAP directory have no inherent order. The
sudoOrderattribute is an integer (or floating point value for LDAP servers that support it) that is used to sort the matching entries. This allows LDAP-based sudoers entries to more closely mimic the behavior of the sudoers file, where the order of the entries influences the result. If multiple entries match, the entry with the highest
sudoOrderattribute is chosen. This corresponds to the “last match” behavior of the sudoers file. If the
sudoOrderattribute is not present, a value of 0 is assumed. The
sudoOrderattribute is only available in sudo versions 1.7.5 and higher.
sudoRolemust contain at least one
sudoCommand. The following example allows users in group wheel to run any command on any host via sudo:
dn: cn=%wheel,ou=SUDOers,dc=example,dc=com objectClass: top objectClass: sudoRole cn: %wheel sudoUser: %wheel sudoHost: ALL sudoCommand: ALL
ALLtag is matched in this query too.) If no match is returned for the user's name and groups, a third query returns all entries containing user netgroups and other non-Unix groups and checks to see if the user belongs to any of them. If timed entries are enabled with the SUDOERS_TIMED configuration directive, the LDAP queries include a sub-filter that limits retrieval to entries that satisfy the time constraints, if any. If the NETGROUP_BASE configuration directive is present (see Configuring ldap.conf below), queries are performed to determine the list of netgroups the user belongs to before the sudoers query. This makes it possible to include netgroups in the sudoers query string in the same manner as Unix groups. The third query mentioned above is not performed unless a group provider plugin is also configured. The actual LDAP queries performed by sudo are as follows:
nisNetgrouprecords with a
nisNetgroupTriplecontaining the user, host and NIS domain. The query will match
nisNetgroupTripleentries with either the short or long form of the host name or no host name specified in the tuple. If the NIS domain is set, the query will match only match entries that include the domain or for which there is no domain present. If the NIS domain is not set, a wildcard is used to match any domain name but be aware that the NIS schema used by some LDAP servers may not support wild cards for
nisNetgrouprecords with a
memberNisNetgroupentry that refers to an already-matched record.
sudoOrderattribute, but there is no way to guarantee the order of attributes within a specific entry. If there are conflicting command rules in an entry, the negative takes precedence. This is called paranoid behavior (not necessarily the most specific match). Here is an example:
# /etc/sudoers: # Allow all commands except shell johnny ALL=(root) ALL,!/bin/sh # Always allows all commands because ALL is matched last puddles ALL=(root) !/bin/sh,ALL # LDAP equivalent of johnny # Allows all commands except shell dn: cn=role1,ou=Sudoers,dc=my-domain,dc=com objectClass: sudoRole objectClass: top cn: role1 sudoUser: johnny sudoHost: ALL sudoCommand: ALL sudoCommand: !/bin/sh # LDAP equivalent of puddles # Notice that even though ALL comes last, it still behaves like # role1 since the LDAP code assumes the more paranoid configuration dn: cn=role2,ou=Sudoers,dc=my-domain,dc=com objectClass: sudoRole objectClass: top cn: role2 sudoUser: puddles sudoHost: ALL sudoCommand: !/bin/sh sudoCommand: ALL
# does not match all but joe # rather, does not match anyone sudoUser: !joe # does not match all but joe # rather, matches everyone including Joe sudoUser: ALL sudoUser: !joe # does not match all but web01 # rather, matches all hosts including web01 sudoHost: ALL sudoHost: !web01
sudoUserattribute. Three versions of the schema: one for OpenLDAP servers (schema.OpenLDAP), one for Netscape-derived servers (schema.iPlanet), and one for Microsoft Active Directory (schema.ActiveDirectory) may be found in the sudo distribution. The schema for sudo in OpenLDAP form is also included in the EXAMPLES section. ldap.conf(5) manual. The path to ldap.conf may be overridden via the ldap_conf plugin argument in sudo.conf(5). Also note that on systems using the OpenLDAP libraries, default values specified in /etc/openldap/ldap.conf or the user's .ldaprc files are not used. Only those options explicitly listed in /etc/ldap.conf as being supported by sudo are honored. Configuration options are listed below in upper case but are parsed in a case-independent manner. Lines beginning with a pound sign (‘
#’) are ignored. Leading white space is removed from the beginning of lines.
#’) and the escaping of special characters with a backslash (‘
\’) is not supported.
:’). The HOST parameter is deprecated in favor of the URI specification and is included for backwards compatibility only.
ou=netgroup,dc=example,dc=comfor the domain
example.com. Multiple NETGROUP_BASE lines may be specified, in which case they are queried in the order specified. This option can be used to query a user's netgroups directly via LDAP which is usually faster than fetching every
sudoRoleobject containing a
sudoUserthat begins with a ‘
+’ prefix. The NIS schema used by some LDAP servers need a modificaton to support querying the
nisNetgroupobject by its
nisNetgroupTriplemember. OpenLDAP's slapd requires the following change to the
attributetype ( 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 NAME 'nisNetgroupTriple' DESC 'Netgroup triple' EQUALITY caseIgnoreIA5Match SUBSTR caseIgnoreIA5SubstringsMatch SYNTAX 188.8.131.52.4.1.14184.108.40.206.26 )
(&(attribute=value)(attribute2=value2)). The default search filter is:
objectClass=nisNetgroup. If ldap_filter is omitted, no search filter will be used. This option is only when querying netgroups directly via LDAP.
yes, TLS (SSL) encryption is always used when communicating with the LDAP server. Typically, this involves connecting to the server on port 636 (ldaps).
start_tls, the LDAP server connection is initiated normally and TLS encryption is begun before the bind credentials are sent. This has the advantage of not requiring a dedicated port for encrypted communications. This parameter is only supported by LDAP servers that honor the start_tls extension, such as the OpenLDAP and Tivoli Directory servers.
ou=SUDOers,dc=example,dc=comfor the domain
example.com. Multiple SUDOERS_BASE lines may be specified, in which case they are queried in the order specified.
(&(attribute=value)(attribute2=value2)). The default search filter is:
objectClass=sudoRole. If ldap_filter is omitted, no search filter will be used.
sudoNotAfterattributes that implement time-dependent sudoers entries.
#’) and the escaping of special characters with a backslash (‘
\’) is not supported. If this option is used, /etc/ldap.conf must not be world-readable to avoid exposing the password. Alternately, a stash file can be used to store the password in encrypted form (see below). If no TLS_KEYPW is specified, a stash file will be used if it exists. The stash file must have the same path as the file specified by TLS_KEY, but use a
.sthfile extension instead of
ldapkey.sth. The default
ldapkey.kdbthat ships with Tivoli Directory Server is encrypted with the password
ssl_password. The gsk8capicmd utility can be used to manage the key database and create a stash file. This option is only supported by the Tivoli LDAP libraries.
ldap://or port 636 for
ldaps://. If no hostname is specified, sudo will connect to localhost. Multiple URI lines are treated identically to a URI line containing multiple entries. Only systems using the OpenSSL libraries support the mixing of
ldaps://URIs. Both the Netscape-derived and Tivoli LDAP libraries used on most commercial versions of Unix are only capable of supporting one or the other.
sudoers: and uses this to determine the search order. Note that sudo does not stop searching after the first match and later matches take precedence over earlier ones. The following sources are recognized:
[NOTFOUND=return]will short-circuit the search if the user was not found in the preceding source. To consult LDAP first followed by the local sudoers file (if it exists), use:
sudoers: ldap files
sudoers = ldap, files
sudoers = ldap
sudoers = ldap = auth, files
authqualifier only affects user lookups; both LDAP and sudoers will be queried for
Defaultsentries. If the /etc/netsvc.conf file is not present or there is no sudoers line, the following default is assumed:
sudoers = files
ldapfor the sudoers entry in /etc/nsswitch.conf. Note that the /etc/ldap.conf file is not used by the SSSD sudo back end. Please see sssd-sudo(5) for more information on configuring sudo to work with SSSD.
# Either specify one or more URIs or one or more host:port pairs. # If neither is specified sudo will default to localhost, port 389. # #host ldapserver #host ldapserver1 ldapserver2:390 # # Default port if host is specified without one, defaults to 389. #port 389 # # URI will override the host and port settings. uri ldap://ldapserver #uri ldaps://secureldapserver #uri ldaps://secureldapserver ldap://ldapserver # # The amount of time, in seconds, to wait while trying to connect to # an LDAP server. bind_timelimit 30 # # The amount of time, in seconds, to wait while performing an LDAP query. timelimit 30 # # Must be set or sudo will ignore LDAP; may be specified multiple times. sudoers_base ou=SUDOers,dc=example,dc=com # # verbose sudoers matching from ldap #sudoers_debug 2 # # Enable support for time-based entries in sudoers. #sudoers_timed yes # # optional proxy credentials #binddn <who to search as> #bindpw <password> #rootbinddn <who to search as, uses /etc/ldap.secret for bindpw> # # LDAP protocol version, defaults to 3 #ldap_version 3 # # Define if you want to use an encrypted LDAP connection. # Typically, you must also set the port to 636 (ldaps). #ssl on # # Define if you want to use port 389 and switch to # encryption before the bind credentials are sent. # Only supported by LDAP servers that support the start_tls # extension such as OpenLDAP. #ssl start_tls # # Additional TLS options follow that allow tweaking of the # SSL/TLS connection. # #tls_checkpeer yes # verify server SSL certificate #tls_checkpeer no # ignore server SSL certificate # # If you enable tls_checkpeer, specify either tls_cacertfile # or tls_cacertdir. Only supported when using OpenLDAP. # #tls_cacertfile /etc/certs/trusted_signers.pem #tls_cacertdir /etc/certs # # For systems that don't have /dev/random # use this along with PRNGD or EGD.pl to seed the # random number pool to generate cryptographic session keys. # Only supported when using OpenLDAP. # #tls_randfile /etc/egd-pool # # You may restrict which ciphers are used. Consult your SSL # documentation for which options go here. # Only supported when using OpenLDAP. # #tls_ciphers <cipher-list> # # Sudo can provide a client certificate when communicating to # the LDAP server. # Tips: # * Enable both lines at the same time. # * Do not password protect the key file. # * Ensure the keyfile is only readable by root. # # For OpenLDAP: #tls_cert /etc/certs/client_cert.pem #tls_key /etc/certs/client_key.pem # # For SunONE or iPlanet LDAP, tls_cert and tls_key may specify either # a directory, in which case the files in the directory must have the # default names (e.g. cert8.db and key4.db), or the path to the cert # and key files themselves. However, a bug in version 5.0 of the LDAP # SDK will prevent specific file names from working. For this reason # it is suggested that tls_cert and tls_key be set to a directory, # not a file name. # # The certificate database specified by tls_cert may contain CA certs # and/or the client's cert. If the client's cert is included, tls_key # should be specified as well. # For backward compatibility, "sslpath" may be used in place of tls_cert. #tls_cert /var/ldap #tls_key /var/ldap # # If using SASL authentication for LDAP (OpenSSL) # use_sasl yes # sasl_auth_id <SASL user name> # rootuse_sasl yes # rootsasl_auth_id <SASL user name for root access> # sasl_secprops none # krb5_ccname /etc/.ldapcache
includeline in slapd.conf and restart slapd.
attributetype ( 220.127.116.11.4.1.15918.104.22.168 NAME 'sudoUser' DESC 'User(s) who may run sudo' EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match SUBSTR caseExactIA5SubstringsMatch SYNTAX 22.214.171.124.4.1.14126.96.36.199.26 ) attributetype ( 188.8.131.52.4.1.159184.108.40.206 NAME 'sudoHost' DESC 'Host(s) who may run sudo' EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match SUBSTR caseExactIA5SubstringsMatch SYNTAX 220.127.116.11.4.1.1418.104.22.168.26 ) attributetype ( 22.214.171.124.4.1.159126.96.36.199 NAME 'sudoCommand' DESC 'Command(s) to be executed by sudo' EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match SYNTAX 188.8.131.52.4.1.14184.108.40.206.26 ) attributetype ( 220.127.116.11.4.1.15918.104.22.168 NAME 'sudoRunAs' DESC 'User(s) impersonated by sudo' EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match SYNTAX 22.214.171.124.4.1.14126.96.36.199.26 ) attributetype ( 188.8.131.52.4.1.159184.108.40.206 NAME 'sudoOption' DESC 'Options(s) followed by sudo' EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match SYNTAX 220.127.116.11.4.1.1418.104.22.168.26 ) attributetype ( 22.214.171.124.4.1.159126.96.36.199 NAME 'sudoRunAsUser' DESC 'User(s) impersonated by sudo' EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match SYNTAX 188.8.131.52.4.1.14184.108.40.206.26 ) attributetype ( 220.127.116.11.4.1.15918.104.22.168 NAME 'sudoRunAsGroup' DESC 'Group(s) impersonated by sudo' EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match SYNTAX 22.214.171.124.4.1.14126.96.36.199.26 ) attributetype ( 188.8.131.52.4.1.159184.108.40.206 NAME 'sudoNotBefore' DESC 'Start of time interval for which the entry is valid' EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch SYNTAX 220.127.116.11.4.1.1418.104.22.168.24 ) attributetype ( 22.214.171.124.4.1.159126.96.36.199 NAME 'sudoNotAfter' DESC 'End of time interval for which the entry is valid' EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch SYNTAX 188.8.131.52.4.1.14184.108.40.206.24 ) attributeTypes ( 220.127.116.11.4.1.15918.104.22.168 NAME 'sudoOrder' DESC 'an integer to order the sudoRole entries' EQUALITY integerMatch ORDERING integerOrderingMatch SYNTAX 22.214.171.124.4.1.14126.96.36.199.27 ) objectclass ( 188.8.131.52.4.1.159184.108.40.206 NAME 'sudoRole' SUP top STRUCTURAL DESC 'Sudoer Entries' MUST ( cn ) MAY ( sudoUser $ sudoHost $ sudoCommand $ sudoRunAs $ sudoRunAsUser $ sudoRunAsGroup $ sudoOption $ sudoNotBefore $ sudoNotAfter $ sudoOrder $ description ) )